By Daniel Hund | Concept Laser GmbH
- The “Rider of Unlingen” from the Hallstatt culture – A 3D project
- Unique archeological specimens are being reproduced through 3D printing
- An archeological sensation is being copied true to the original using 3D printing
Lichtenfels (Germany), 06/19/2017 3D printing the cultural history of humanity? Absolutely. 3D production methods are breaking new ground all the time. The unwritten motto of 3D experts seems to be the desire to continually test the limits of the technology. 3D printing is even opening up totally new possibilities for documenting and copying artifacts in the field of archeology. The latest example is a replica of the figure of a bronze horse rider from an early Celtic chieftain’s grave near Unlingen, Germany in the Biberach region of Baden-Württemberg. Using one of its Mlab cusings, Concept Laser has produced a faithful copy of this prehistoric rider. An object nearly 2,800 years old is being printed out of powder.
3D metal printing is making it possible to utilize archeological discoveries in new ways. By creating a faithful replica, original objects can be evaluated scientifically and replicas made available for exhibitions at the same time. Cultural history is taking shape in 3D printers. Holding the Rider of Unlingen in your hand lets you look back at 28 centuries of cultural history.
The scientific implications of the “Rider of Unlingen”
The Rider of Unlingen is a burial object found in a Celtic chieftain’s grave from the Hallstatt culture. This bronze statuette of a rider on a double horse was located in a wagon grave in Unlingen, Germany which had already been robbed in ancient times. The broken edges of the incomplete legs of the horse indicate that the statuette was originally mounted to another object which is no longer preserved. This could have been the top of a bronze lid, the base of a larger bronze vessel or furniture, a wagon or a yoke.
The other burial objects date the figurine to the 8th or 7th Century B.C.E. Figurative depictions from this time period are extremely rare in southern Germany. The Rider of Unlingen represents one of the oldest depictions of a horse rider north of the Alps. This figurine is a unique early Celtic piece in Central Europe.
The “Rider of Unlingen” 3D project
The transition from molding to additive manufacturing opens up new prospects for scientific evaluation in the field of archeology, as well as the exhibition of objects in several different places at the same time. Until just a few years ago, discoveries could only be reproduced through direct molding, a process which always risks damaging the original.
Through the use of additive 3D technology, it is now possible to produce copies without contacting the original at all. To digitize the “Rider of Unlingen” object from the Hallstatt culture, a specialized process known as x-ray computer tomography (CT) was used. The bronze horse rider was x-rayed three dimensionally and evaluated using the “VG Studio Max 3.0” software from Volume Graphics. The STL data obtained through this process makes it possible to transfer the industrial 3D printing process of today over to applications in the field of archeology.
In the meantime, the technical progress being made in terms of material variety and printing precision is enormous. For the 3D printing job, Concept Laser provided the Baden-Württemberg State Office for the Preservation of Monuments with its LaserCusing technology in the form of an Mlab cusing.
Concept Laser’s material engineers also found a bronze alloy similar to the original: a modern copper-tin alloy with a density and specific weight approximating those of the artifact from the 8th/7th Century B.C.E. The precise percentages of copper and tin could still be determined using x-ray fluorescence analysis. This is how the “Rider of Unlingen” was printed in bronze true to the original. Visually and tactilely, the reproduction horse rider is on par with the original piece.
The additive manufacturing of faithful replicas through 3D printing is opening up new prospects for the field of archeology, making discovered metal objects available for scientific purposes. At the same time, copies can be exhibited to museum visitors.
Essentially, multiple copies of historical discoveries can be printed out and used, where only experts would be able to tell the difference through material analysis, as the production process uses powder of modern origin. Even the issue of re-engineering isn’t taboo – theoretically, it should even be possible to reconstruct heavily damaged objects in the future. These objects would then have the same shape as the original production, enabling the destructive traces of history on them to be erased. Artifacts from humanity’s past give us a glimpse of our cultural history, and 3D printing makes it possible to experience this history in a tangible way.
Summary – The implications of additive 3D printing for archeological artifacts and discoveries:
- Archeological discoveries with delicate and complex structures can be reproduced highly accurately
- The 3D printing process enables the contact-less reproduction of artifacts without damaging them
- Replicas are absolutely accurate in every detail and faithful to the original
- Replicas can be made accessible to museums while the originals remain in archives for research purposes
- High density, comparable feel and high surface quality
- Considerably shortened development time and expense for mold-less replicas of unique objects
- No tools to buy, less waste
- Possibility of re-engineering in the case of broken objects.
The following interview was provided courtesy of Concept Laser and head conservator Nicole Ebinger-Rist.
Interview with head conservator Nicole Ebinger-Rist of the Baden-Württemberg State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the regional board of Stuttgart, Germany
Fascinating history from the world of 3D printing may not be that unusual, but the history of a horse rider discovery from the Hallstatt culture is especially interesting. In a brief interview, Nicole Ebinger-Rist explained just what motivates a conservator to get involved with 3D printing.
Editor: What implications does 3D printing have for the future of exhibitions in practice?
Nicole Ebinger-Rist: The replica created is being shown as part of the exhibition entitled “The Rider of Unlingen” – Celts, horses and charioteers. It’s a exhibition at two museums showing what state-of-the-art technology can do today. True-to-detail reproduction without direct molding (which could potentially damage discovered objects) is crucial here.
In the museum world, original specimens are grouped together in exhibitions, allowing them to be contrasted with comparable objects. These comparative collections give exhibition visitors and scientific researchers insight in a historical context. A replica which is faithful to the original can be made accessible at museums in many different places around the world. Theoretically, it should even be possible to reconstruct heavily damaged objects in the future, which would give the object its original shape back. Essentially, we’d be able to erase the destructive traces of history from an object.
Editor: What form does cooperation between partners of the 3D project take?
Nicole Ebinger-Rist: Volume Graphics in Heidelberg, Germany suggested the idea of using 3D metal printing to produce replicas. In a CT scanner, we were able to capture the shape of the “Rider of Unlingen” as STL data without touching or damaging it. We printed out the horse rider using the LaserCUSING process on a machine from Concept Laser. Concept Laser also lent us their material expertise.
The historical rider is made of a copper alloy from the Iron Age, and we did not want to remove any material for a precise analysis. The 3D metal printing experts found a copper alloy for us which comes very close to the original in terms of specific weight and density distribution. It was an exciting journey for all of us.
Editor: How convincing is the appearance of a replica like this?
Nicole Ebinger-Rist: I was very surprised by the level of detail. All of a sudden, you’re holding an object from the 7th Century B.C.E. in your hands, except that it’s made out of powder from the 21st Century. You’ve got a cultural-historically relevant copy in your hands and are looking at 28 centuries gone by. It’s simply overwhelming.
3D printing is a wild technology. Every archeological find has it’s own magic, especially when they are as unique as the “Rider of Unlingen.” When you’re holding a reproduction which resembles the original one-to-one, it’s a very special thing, and very important for further research. Whole new possibilities are being opened up to curators, conservators and scientists.
Editor: Thank you very much for the interview today.
About the Baden-Württemberg State Office for the Preservation of Monuments and Nicole Ebinger-Rist
In addition to capturing and documenting cultural monuments, research is a key part of monument preservation in Baden-Württemberg. This research includes inventory taking, excavation and evaluation activities and a variety of different projects and research programs. Some of these projects are financed by third-party funds, such as the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Others arise from day-to-day monument preservation work. Various different departments and specialists from the state office work together here.
Nicole Ebinger-Rist heads up the archeological restoration department at the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board and is accompanying the Rider of Unlingen discovery from the Hallstatt culture as the conservator. She is currently writing her thesis on an early Celtic princess’ grave which was discovered on the Danube plain in Upper Swabia in 2010 and which has been exposed and analyzed under laboratory conditions over the past few years.
Background information on the Hallstatt culture and the “Rider of Unlingen”
The ancient pre-Roman period of the Iron Age across much of Europe from about 800 to 450 B.C.E. is designated the period of the Hallstatt culture.
The “Rider of Unlingen” is a burial object found in a chieftain’s grave. The Celtic nobility of the Hallstatt culture was buried in complex barrow graves. These graves featured high-value burial objects to indicate the importance of the person who died. These graves were secured, but frequently robbed of their precious treasures by grave robbers.
This was also the case with the grave site in Unlingen. Presumably, the “Rider of Unlingen” was “forgotten” during an ancient grave robbery, enabling archeologists to preserve it for posterity.
The horse rider statuette was located in a central grave of Barrow 3 in Unlingen which had been robbed. The most outstanding discovery of the excavation was from the Hallstatt culture (Ha C – 8th/7th Century). This piece is a bronze statuette of a horse rider on a double horse which was originally mounted to another object. This could have been the top of a bronze lid or the base of a larger bronze vessel, for example. The object illustrates the high level of craftsmanship of the period with regard to the use and processing of metallic alloys.
The discovery and excavation of the well-preserved Celtic graves near Unlingen in the summer of 2016 made a big stir thanks to the extraordinary burial objects found there. One of the discoveries, the “Rider of Unlingen” (a bronze sculpture from 700 B.C.E.) is the oldest figurative depiction of a rider found in Germany.
This impressive original discovery, along with other original pieces from the burial ground near Unlingen, were shown at the Heuneburg Museum in the Hundersingen section of Herberting for the first time at the special exhibition on Celts, horses and charioteers starting on May 14, 2017 (will continue through November 5, 2017).
Concept Laser GmbH
An der Zeil 8
Phone+49 (0) 9571 / 1679-0
State Office for the Preservation of Monuments on the Stuttgart regional board
Head of archeological restoration, department 84.1, principle, guideline, monument research
Dipl.-Rest. Nicole Ebinger-Rist
Berliner Str. 12
D-73728 Esslingen am NeckarGermany
Phone: +49 (0) 711/ 90445131
LaserCUSING® background information – Key word: LaserCUSING®
The patented LaserCUSING® process from Concept Laser is used to create high-precision mechanically and thermally resilient metallic components. The term “LaserCUSING®,” coined from the C in Concept Laser and the word FUSING, describes the technology: The fusing process generates components layer-by-layer using 3D-CAD data.
In this process, fine metal powder is fused locally by a high-energy fiber laser. The material solidifies after cooling. The contour of the component is created by redirecting the laser beam using a mirror redirection unit (scanner). The component is built up layer by layer (with a layer thickness of 15 – 500 μm) by lowering the bottom of the build chamber, applying more powder and then fusing again.
What makes systems from Concept Laser unique is stochastic navigation of the slice segments (also referred to as “islands”) which are processed successively. This patented process ensures a significant reduction in stress when manufacturing very large components.
Concept Laser at a glance
Concept Laser GmbH from Lichtenfels, Germany is today, unlike almost any other company, one of the real pioneers and key drivers of powder-bed-based laser fusing with metals. The technology driver here is the patented LaserCUSING® process, also referred to as 3D metal printing, which over the course of 15 years has evolved the additive manufacturing of 3D components from a rapid technology to the stage of industrial series production.
When Frank Herzog founded Concept Laser GmbH back in 2000 in Lichtenfels, a metal laser fusing machine was an entirely unknown quantity in the market. How is a 3D geometry created from metal powder using a laser? What does 3D printing or a digital process chain mean for the manufacturing of the future?
The answer was industrial machine technology: Concept Laser unveiled the first machine of this type in 2001 at Euromold in Frankfurt. With 65 patents granted today and over 120 patent applications, Frank Herzog and his workforce of around 190 employees continue to champion and develop the LaserCUSING® process. The company caters for the global market for laser fusing machines across all different sectors from sites in Germany, the USA and China and through a network of more than 35 distribution and service partners.
Concept Laser’s high quality standards, expertise in processes, applications and materials deliver reliable and cost-effective solutions which prove their effectiveness in everyday production and are primarily aimed at reducing part costs. In addition to commercial aspects, the process offers a large number of other benefits compared to conventional methods of production: The components are lighter, the designer has new freedoms, the topology and geometry are optimized, additional functions can be integrated, and less raw material is required. What this means is components that were previously manufactured using machining processes are now being redesigned to fully exploit the new potential offered by additive manufacturing.
Concept Laser offers a range of small machines (50 x 50 x 80 mm3) right through to the machine with the world’s largest build envelope (800 x 400 x 500 mm3). Machines from Concept Laser that are equipped with multilaser technology are among the fastest, safest and highest-quality laser fusing machines in the world. Around 650 installed machines and prestigious references and projects of this Franconian “hidden champion” around the globe send out a clear message and symbolize an outstanding technology for the future sealed with the endorsement “Made in Germany”.
For example, today the aerospace industry, automotive industry, medical technology, dental technology, toolmaking and other sectors focus strategically on 3D metal printing as the economical and high-quality production strategy of the future that embraces the notion of “Industry 4.0.”
Prizes & awards
2001 Presented with the EuroMold Silver AWARD for the M3 linear LaserCUSING® machine
2008 Presented with the Bavarian Innovation Prize for the M2 cusing LaserCUSING® machine
2012 Presented with the EuroMold Bronze AWARD for the X line 1000R LaserCUSING® machine
2014 BAVARIA’S BEST 50 prize-winner
2014 Finalist in the “Large Companies” category for the German Industry Innovation Prize in the shape of Frank Herzog, Managing Director of Concept Laser GmbH – Project: “The first 3D-printed titanium component on board the A350 XWB”
2015 The “Best CEO of the Year Additive Manufacturing” award was presented to Frank Herzog, President & CEO of Concept Laser GmbH by the European CEO Magazine
2015 Nominated for the German Future Prize – Prize awarded by the German President for technology and innovation Project: “3D printing in commercial aircraft engineering – a manufacturing revolution is taking off” in the shape of Frank Herzog, Managing Director of Concept Laser GmbH
2015 FOCUS Growth Champion
2016 Winner of the “International Additive Manufacturing Award” with the QM Meltpool 3D quality monitoring tool, which was developed in-house
2016 The ”Technologie Award by the Ostbayerischen Technologie-Transfer-Instituts e.V.“ was presented to Frank Herzog, President & CEO of Concept Laser GmbH, for his entrepreneurial technology and innovation services
2016 Winner “Materialica Design+Technology Award 2016“ for the ”NextGen Spaceframe” project, together with its project partners
2016 The “Best Pioneer in the Manufacturing and 3D Printing Industry 2016” award was presented to Frank Herzog, President & CEO of Concept Laser GmbH, by the European Business Magazine
2016 FOCUS Growth Champion
2016 Winner “Bavarian Innovation Award 2016“ with the QM Meltpool 3D quality monitoring tool, which was developed in-house
2016 The “Best CEO of the Year Additive Manufacturing” award was presented to Frank Herzog, President & CEO of Concept Laser GmbH, by the European CEO Magazine
2017 iF DESIGN AWARD 2017 for the user interface design of the software CL WRX 3.0 from Concept Laser
All images owned by the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments in Stuttgart (Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Stuttgart, Esslingen a. Neckar) – See copyright
Source: Concept Laser
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